Authors: Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artes, Salvador
Journal: PHYSICAL REVIEW A
Publication date: 2019/01/08
Abstract: Time averaging of weak values using the quantum transition path time probability distribution enables us to establish a general uncertainty relation for the weak values of two not necessarily Hermitian operators. This new relation is a weak value analog of the Schrodinger strong value uncertainty relation. It leads to the conclusion that it is possible to determine with high accuracy the simultaneous mean weak values of noncommuting operators by judicious choice of the pre- and postselected states even when the postselected state is not an eigenfunction of one of the respective operators. When the time fluctuations of the two weak values are proportional to each other there is no uncertainty limitation on their variances and, in principle, their means can be determined with arbitrary precision even though their corresponding operators do not commute. To exemplify these properties we consider specific weak value uncertainty relations for the time-energy, coordinate-momentum, and coordinate-kinetic-energy pairs. In addition we analyze spin operators and the Stern-Gerlach experiment in weak and strong inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This classic case leads to anomalous spin values when the field is weak. The weak value uncertainty relation implies that anomalous spin values are associated with large variances so that their measurement demands increased signal averaging. These examples establish the importance of considering the time dependence of weak values in scattering experiments.