Authors: Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Doan, L.; Danilovich, T.; Lindqvist, M.; Saberi, M.; Olofsson, H.; De Beck, E.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Hofner, S.; Kastner, J. H.; Kerschbaum, F.; Khouri, T.; Maercker, M.; Montez, R.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Sahai, R.; Tafoya, D.; Zijlstra, A.
Journal: ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Publication date: 2020/08/28
Abstract: Context. This is the first publication from the DEATHSTAR project. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the uncertainties of the observational estimates of mass-loss rates from evolved stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). Aim. The aim in this first publication is to constrain the sizes of the (CO)-C-12 emitting region from the circumstellar envelopes around 42 mostly southern AGB stars, of which 21 are M-type and 21 are C-type, using the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. The symmetry of the outflows is also investigated. Methods. Line emission from (CO)-C-12 J = 2 -> 1 and 3 -> 2 from all of the sources were mapped using the ACA. In this initial analysis, the emission distribution was fit to a Gaussian distribution in the uv-plane. A detailed radiative transfer analysis will be presented in a future publication. The major and minor axis of the best-fit Gaussian at the line center velocity of the (CO)-C-12 J = 2 -> 1 emission gives a first indication of the size of the emitting region. Furthermore, the fitting results, such as the Gaussian major and minor axis, center position, and the goodness of fit across both lines, constrain the symmetry of the emission distribution. For a subsample of sources, the measured emission distribution is compared to predictions from previous best-fit radiative transfer modeling results. Results. We find that the CO envelope sizes are, in general, larger for C-type than for M-type AGB stars, which is as expected if the CO/H-2 ratio is larger in C-type stars. Furthermore, the measurements show a relation between the measured (Gaussian) (CO)-C-12 J = 2 -> 1 size and circumstellar density that, while in broad agreement with photodissociation calculations, reveals large scatter and some systematic differences between the different stellar types. For lower mass-loss-rate irregular and semi-regular variables of both M- and C-type AGB stars, the (CO)-C-12 J = 2 -> 1 size appears to be independent of the ratio of the mass-loss rate to outflow velocity, which is a measure of circumstellar density. For the higher mass-loss-rate Mira stars, the (CO)-C-12 J = 2 -> 1 size clearly increases with circumstellar density, with larger sizes for the higher CO-abundance C-type stars. The M-type stars appear to be consistently smaller than predicted from photodissociation theory. The majority of the sources have CO envelope sizes that are consistent with a spherically symmetric, smooth outflow, at least on larger scales. For about a third of the sources, indications of strong asymmetries are detected. This is consistent with what was found in previous interferometric investigations of northern sources. Smaller scale asymmetries are found in a larger fraction of sources. Conclusions. These results for CO envelope radii and shapes can be used to constrain detailed radiative transfer modeling of the same stars so as to determine mass-loss rates that are independent of photodissociation models. For a large fraction of the sources, observations at higher spatial resolution will be necessary to deduce the nature and origin of the complex circumstellar dynamics revealed by our ACA observations.